A.B.C (Anatomy, Biomechanics, Control) of Balance During Standing and Walking
David A. Winter
ISBN 0-9699420-0-1; Paper, 1995
56 Pages, 54 Figures, 2 Tables, 104 References
FOCUS OF THE BOOK
The fact that humans are bipeds and they locomote over the ground with one foot in contact (walking), no feet in contact (running) or both feet in contact (standing) creates a major challenge to our balance control system. As an inverted pendulum system we have 213 of our body mass located 213 of body height above ground. Our neuromuscular balance control degenerates in the elderly such that the death rate in the 80+ age group due to falls is almost nine times the death rate in the 15-29 year olds due to motor vehicle accidents!
The book gathers together basic inverted pendulum models, their predicted motor control mechanisms and relates them to what has been reported in the literature. The “dynamics” at all levels of challenge are examined, everything from quiet stance through perturbed stance and walking. Although more than 90% of the reported research has concentrated on balance in the sagittal plane this text provides a 3D approach. It will be seen, for example, that MIL balance is totally different than A/P balance. It will also be evident, especially during gait, that there are several inverted pendulums acting and that the body must also simultaneously defend against a vertical collapse.
WHO WILL BE INTERESTED
This book addresses the needs of the following professionals:
I. Rehabilitation personnel in physical therapy, physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, prosthetics and orthotics.
II. Researches in neuromuscular balance control and biomechanics of human movement.
1. Statistics on falls, definitions.
2. Balance and Posture During Quiet Standing
· A general biomechanical model
· Quiet standing in different positions
· Centre of pressure analyses
· Centre of gravity analyses
· Fourier Analyses
3. Balance Control During Perturbed Standing
· Reactive responses to platform, arm, leg, and shoulder perturbations
· Sensory conflict redundancy of sensory systems
· Proactive responses
4. Balance During Gait Initiation and Termination
5. Balance and Posture During Human Gait
· Inverted pendulum model
· Plane of progression balance of H.A.T.
· M/L balance of H.A.T.
· Control of head acceleration
· Frontal plane balance of total body
· Support synergy